Monday, March 21, 2011

The Prevention and Treatment of RSI, Part 2: Increasing the Tissue Repair Rate

This is part 2 of a a series on the Prevention and Treatment of RSI. See
The Prevention and Treatment of RSI, Part 1: Decreasing the Damage Rate for the introduction.

RSI stands for Repetitive Strain Injury. In the present discussion, I will concentrate on RSI as it occurs to computer users.

A quick primer on RSI:
  • An activity that causes "strain" produces microscopic tears or damage to your tissue.
  • To counteract this, your tissues are able to repair themselves at a certain rate.
  • You get RSI when the rate of damage exceeds the rate of repair for extended periods of time.
  • The prevention and treatment of RSI completely revolve around decreasing the damage rate and increasing the tissue repair rate.

In this post, I will be discussing the mechanics and tactics related to
increasing the repair rate.

Increasing the RSI tissue repair rate

Tissues in the body undergo routine maintenance with the help of the
blood supply. The blood carries to the region all the necessary
nutrients and other components for tissue repair and regeneration, and
carries away the waste products of such processes. Furthermore, much
of actual tissue reconstruction happens during sleep. Most of the
effort in increasing the tissue repair rates will resolve around these
two key points.

The reason that RSI is such a challenge to treat is that much of the
damage is done to the connective tissues like tendons and sheaths.
These tissues, by their very nature, have very little blood supply,
which places a natural limit of the rate of repairs to these tissues.
It is not uncommon for RSI damage to require years of recuperation,
making it that much more important to do what you can on a day-to-day
basis to help with the tissue repair process.

Tactics to increase the RSI tissue repair rate

Here are some practical tactics for increasing the repair rates of the
affected tissues:

  • Keep your hands warm at all times

    The top reason why there is insufficient blood circulation to your
    hands is that they are cold. In part 1 of this series, I mentioned
    that you should avoid typing with cold hands due to the reduction of
    lubrication. This particular tactic extends the need to keep your
    hands warm to all hours. Tissue repairs happen around the clock, so
    to maximize the amount of repairs that can be done in single day, you
    should seek to avoid having cold extremities at all times if at all

  • Improve your cardiovascular conditioning

    Since the tissue repairs are rate-limited by the blood circulation to
    the affected areas, one way to increase the repair rate is to improve
    your systemic cardiovascular conditioning. Any training that improves
    your cardiovascular capacity will help. Personally, I prefer Tabata
    sprints due to their effectiveness and time efficiency, but if you
    like jogging, hiking, or ellipticals then they will work just as well.

  • Weight train

    Weight training is a very effective way to increase the amount of
    circulation to a part of a body. In the context of RSI, we are
    primarily interested in increase the blood flow to the arms. This can
    be accomplished by weight training any of the major muscle groups in
    the arms. A caveat: DO NOT perform any weight training exercises if
    it causes you pain. Also, I am not fond of exercises like squeezing a
    squeeze ball that require your tendons go under continuous movement
    and thereby causing them to incur additional friction damage while
    performing exercise. Exercises that only apply a static load on your
    tendons are preferred, e.g. push-ups, pull-ups, curls, etc.

    People who naturally have cold hands often find that their hands start
    to stay warmer during the day once they start a weight training
    regime, as the blood vessel network becomes better developed in order
    to supply the now larger muscles.

  • Get adequate, high quality sleep

    Even though tissue repairs happen around the clock, a substantial
    majority of it happens during sleep. It is therefore of vital
    importance that you get adequate, high quality sleep so that your
    tissues can better repair themselves.

  • Avoid cutting off circulation to your arms and wrists during sleep

    Since much of the tissue repairs during sleep, it is vitally important
    that the blood circulation to your arms and hands are not hampered
    during sleep. Avoid putting your arms or hands in awkward positions
    that cause them to go numb or otherwise impede blood circulation to
    them. Also avoid crushing your limbs with either your own body or that
    of someone else.

    Avoid having your wrists bent in awkward angles during sleep. Some
    people with advanced RSI also find that their fists become clenched
    during sleep. You can manage these conditions by loosely wearing a
    wrist brace while sleeping in order to keep the hands and wrists in a
    neutral position. Remember not to put them on so tight that it
    impedes your blood circulation.

You should not wait until you have started suffering the symptoms of
RSI to start trying to increase the tissue repair rate. Recall that
RSI is caused by incurring damage at a rate in excess of the repair
rate for an extended period of time. Paying early attention to the
things that can help you increase the repair rate will substantially
increase your likelihood of avoiding RSI in the first place.

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

Paleo Cholesterol Results

The lipid panel, otherwise known as the cholesterol test, is one of several lab tests that your doctor may order for you as part of your routine physical. The results of a lipid panel typically include the following:
  • Total Cholesterol (TC)
  • Triglycerides (TG)
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • Estimated LDL Cholesterol

Computing the Estimated LDL Cholesterol

In lipid panel results, LDL cholesterol is usually "estimated" or "calculated". Whereas total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are cheap and easy to directly measure, the LDL cholesterol is expensive to directly measure. Because of this, the LDL cholesterol is usually provided as a number computed using the Friedewald equation:
Friedewald (1972) Formula: LDL = TC - HDL - TG/5.0 (mg/dL)
The issue with the Friedewald equation is that it is only generally accurate when Triglycerides are between 150 mg/dL and 400 mg/dL. For someone on a Paleo or a low-carb diet, the triglycerides are usually below 100 mg/dL, and in this range the Friedewald equation grossly over-estimates the LDL concentration. For cases where the triglycerides are below 100 mg/dL, a more accurate "Iranian" formula (so named since the research was conducted in Iran) has been developed:
"Iranian" (2008) Formula: LDL = TC/1.19 + TG/1.9 – HDL/1.1 – 38 (mg/dL)
Most lab reports still provide the estimated LDL cholesterol using the Friedwald equation, so it is important to compute your own estimated LDL if you and your doctor are relying on the LDL result to determine a course of treatment.

Interpreting the Results

Currently (as of 2010), of all the results you get from the lipid panel, the most significant indicator of your health risk is the ratio of triglycerides over HDL, the lower the better.

Triglycerides / HDL:
  • 2 or less: ideal
  • 4: average
  • 6 or higher: high risk
In order to improve (reduce) the ratio, you should seek to reduce your triglycerides and increase your HDL cholesterol. Triglycerides is reduced by reducing your carbohydrate intake. HDL is increased by increasing your intake of healthy saturated fats. Both of these are fully satisfied by the Paleo diet.

If you are familiar with the PaleoQ score, you will notice that it only asks for the HDL and triglyceride numbers. This is precisely because the other results don't actually matter as much as what these two markers indicate.

What is your PaleoQ? Find out at Paleo for Life.

Tuesday, March 1, 2011

New "Success Stories" Section on Paleo for Life

Continuing our mission to defeat obesity and chronic diseases through the Paleo diet and lifestyle, we're happy to announce the soft-launch of a new "Success Stories" section on Paleo for Life. Without further ado, you can see it here:

Paleo Diet Success Stories at Paleo for Life

The concept is very simple: Having been on the Paleo diet and lifestyle for some time, each of us has observed a wide variety of differences that this lifestyle has made in our health and well-being. However, until today there has not been a good repository of this knowledge that can help us make sense as to exactly what health conditions the Paleo diet really benefits, and whether there are any health conditions that it doesn't affect on or actually exacerbates. The Paleo Diet Success Stories section is designed to help us capture and share this knowledge. Hopefully, as we share our experiences in how the Paleo diet has improved our various health conditions, we can also learn from our fellow community members on any tricks-of-the-trade that they have picked up along the way.

Check it out, and share your own experiences. Tell your friends to share their Paleo diet experiences. Together, we can defeat obesity and chronic diseases with our collective wisdom!